MotekForcelink Rehabilitation and Analysis Systems

Motekforce Link products are used for clinical analysis and training. The many available application options make the products suitable for research and clinical treatment in neurology rehabilitation medicine, orthopedics, physical therapy, sports, and psychology.


What is CAREN? 

The Computer Assissted Rehabiliation ENvironment (CAREN) is a versatile, multi sensory system for clinical analysis, rehabilitation, evaluation and registration of the human balance system. The use of virtual reality enables researchers to assess the subject’s behavior and includes sensory inputs like visual, auditory, vestibular and tactile.

World's most advanced Biomechanical Lab 

The functionality of the CAREN system is unique in the world and is being used by some of the best and most advanced clinical and research
facilities. Our client base includes: Cleveland Clinic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brooke Army Medical Center and many others.

Custom Design that fits your needs 

The CAREN system can be tailor-made for each client with options to extend the virtual reality projection, kinetic and kinematic add-ons, wireless
EMG and other device integration using our D-Flow software. We also offer the CAREN in three typical setups ranging from a balance orientated setup with flat screen projection to a full dome with dual belt treadmill.

Broad Range of Functionality 

The CAREN can be used in many different types of research and clinical paradigms, patient populations and fields of interest.

CAREN Explained 

In this video you can see how the CAREN is used at the Military Rehabilitation Center in Doorn. You can find more videos in our youtube playlist here.


Gait Lab of the Future 

GRAIL is a total package solution for gait analysis and gait training. GRAIL empowers user friendly assessments and exercises, in challenging conditions, to improve (pathological) gait patterns. Real-time feedback in GRAIL enable analysis and training during the same session.

Why Choose GRAIL 

GRAIL facilitates the analysis and training of impaired walking in patients with neurological and neuromuscular problems, orthopedic patients, and the elderly. The rich, immersive Virtual Reality environments combined with existing scientifically proven clinical protocols offer a faster and better rehabilitation process. All this functionality requires less than 1/3 of the lab space of a traditional gait lab, with a 100% utilization rate because of the extensive training options.

The GRAIL Way 

Conventional gait analysis is, although scientifically proven to be effective,
time consuming, complex, and expensive, which means that most labs limit their service to a small number of patients. The GRAIL’s fully instrumented dual-belt treadmill allows you to measure and analyse hundreds of steps in just a few minutes. The treadmill’s self-paced mode enables the patient to initiate gait and walk at a self selected pace, while the treadmill and the VR environment run in perfect synchronization to create a natural optical flow. Because of these unique features patients walking on a GRAIL show a natural variance in gait that is also seen in walking over ground. (Krogt et al, 2014; Gates et al., 2012)

How GRAIL Works 

Synchronized VR environments, projected on a semi-cylindrical screen, immerse the patient in virtual worlds and natural walking environments.
GRAIL combines a fully instrumented treadmill with a self-paced option, an integrated motion capture system, 3 video cameras, and an EMG system. All the components are integrated and synchronized via the D-Flow software making the information available in real-time for the calculation of all gait parameters. Simulate walking uphill & downhill, combined with visual stimuli, to challenge patients while measuring gait behavior to perform a ‘functional gait analysis’.

Functional Gait Analysis 

The GRAIL’s unique combination of real-time data processing, treadmill perturbations and virtual reality allows you to challenge the patient with
mechanical, visual and cognitive dual-tasks in a safe, controlled environment. Measuring the changes in gait pattern during these situations allows for the identification and quantification of pathology specific compensation strategies or determining the dynamic stability. Once the gait analysis is completed, a training session can be initiated to improve the impaired gait functionality right away.

Offline Analysis 

The Gait Offline Analysis Tool (GOAT) offers intuitive data analysis and
facilitates communication with the (medical) specialist as well as between the specialist and the patient. It presents the GRAIL’s synchronized video data, motion capture data, ground reaction forces and an interactive set of customizable graphs. The recording of multiple steps makes it possible to calculate averages, standard deviations and variations of gait parameters over time. The GOAT can produce a complete gait report in only a few minutes so the data can be analyzed directly after the session.


What is the Regait? 

ReGait can measure to what extent patients can adapt their walking pattern to a given environment. This adaptive capacity can be trained with therapeutic VR walking exercises. Patients are challenged to change their walking pattern by taking smaller/larger steps, faster/slower steps or a side-step.

Why use the Regait? 

To prevent falls in everyday life people need to be able to adapt their walking pattern if necessary. Increasing step frequency to recover from tripping, stepping sideways to avoid a puddle of mud, making a short step to avoid an obstacle on the road, these are all forms of gait adaptablity. Many patients are not able to do so, resulting in a high risk of falling.

Powered by Research 

Laura Hak, PhD, found that gait adaptability is a very important skill which is
required to move safely in everyday life. Based on her PhD Thesis the ReGait was developed to train criticial skills found to be correlated to fall risk.

Gait Training 

Obstacle avoidance, target-steps, side-steps or speeding-up and slowing-down can be trained in a fun and motivating
way. There are exercises with low visual impact for early rehabilitation, but also more immersive and challenging environments for optimal training impulses.


ReGait offers therapists the
possibility to measure how well patients can change their walking pattern in response to the environment. An objective measure of a patient’s adaptive capacity is reported within several minutes. This assessment can be used as a baseline for the therapy and to monitor progression over time.

Key Features 

VR based gait retraining for stroke patients to reduce the risk of falling Assessment for adaptive capacity identifying a potentially high risk factor for falling Training exercises for each level to improve the different aspects of gait adaptability

Human Body Model

What is the Human Body Model? 

The Human Body Model (HBM) is a computer model of the complete human body, including all joints representing a total of 46 kinematic degrees of freedom. The HBM is used to calculate and visualizes joint rotations, joint moments and muscle forces for real-time and off-line analysis.

Real-Time Movement Analysis 

Biomechanical analysis of movement has an important role in clinical management of many neurological and orthopedic conditions, but also for sports purposes. HBM facilitates movement analysis in real-time, by providing immediate feedback to both the therapist and the patient.

Clinical Application 

With HBM clinicians, physical or exercise therapists directly benefit from realtime and off-line visualization of specific motion variables. Additional information about internal forces and moments which are otherwise fundamentally invisible can be analyzed.

Scientific Basis 

The Human Body Model is based on “van den Bogert et al. (2013) A real-time system for biomechanical analysis of human movement and muscle function” as published in Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 


What is the DynSTABLE?

The DynSTABLE offers real-time integration of a translational balance
platform, a force plate, motion capture system and Virtual Reality environments. Assess how well a patient is able to cope with physical perturbations, process visual and auditory information and perform cognitive dual tasks. Dedicated assessment applications assess the different aspects of impaired balance control.

Dynamic Stability and Balance Learning Environment 

Watch and Listen to see if the DynSTABLE can benefit you.

Why use a DynSTABLE? 

When you need more specific balance and stability training applications that can be tailored to your patients needs and when you want to monitor patient progression with objective outcomes.

Which patients can benefit? 

The DynSTABLE is targeted towards rehabilitation where patients have to achieve static and dynamic balance therapy goals. Patients suffering from
neurological disorders, orthopedic disorders or elderly with increased balance control problems can benefit from DynSTABLE therapy.

How the DynSTABLE works 

Using the unique translating platform the DynSTABLE offers challenging rehab exercises that target the sensory system, motor system and cognitive
 capabilities of the patient. An integrated forceplate and 3D motion capture system gather outcome data that can be used to monitor progression. The 120 degree projection screen offers an immersive Virtual Reality environment where exercise applications motivate and challenge patients in various ways.


MotekForceLink C-mill is a unique and proven device for self paced Gait Training and Rehabilitation.

The positive effects of cueing have been identified in several studies. 

With the C-Mill Forcelink offers an instrumented treadmill with visual and auditory cues for training and evaluation of gait patterns and learning avoidance strategies in a safe and controlled environment. 

The C-Mill calculates online data on gait parameters like stride length, width, frequency and symmetry. Thus tra nsparency in the effect of gait training is realised, while saving precious treatment time. The patented C-Mill concept offers flexible treatment protocols without markers, wires or any other interference with the patient. A complete, advanced Gait-lab and training centre on 4m 



A typical cueing session on the C-Mill starts with letting the patient walk slowly on the treadmill. After approx. 10 seconds, the system starts giving visual cues which come exactly in line with the current gait pattern of the user. The therapist now can influence this pattern, thus altering and training the gait pattern. 


A typical obstacle avoidance session on the C-Mill starts with letting the patient walk slowly on the treadmill. A pre-programmed object appears on your demand repetitively and exactly in the required phasing with the current steps of the patient:
- first exactly in between the feet, so the patient does not need to adapt. 
- then more and more on the spot where the feet is predicted to land, so anticipation. and adaptation of gait pattern is needed. 
This exact positioning of obstacles can now be repeated and thus the adaptation strategy can

    C-Mill Brochure.pdf


Modular Treadmill System

The M-Gait is modular, enabling various system enhancements to improve the functionality of your set-up. A 3D instrumented treadmill can be upgraded with pitch and/or sway, motion capture, Virtual Reality, Body Weight Support and many other features.

What is the Basic Setup? 

The M-Gait Basic Setup contains a 3D instrumented treadmill that measures
ground reaction forces, center-of-pressure, and spatio-temporal parameters. Left and right belt speed can be controlled separately, allowing a split belt walking protocol and advanced gait research applications mimicking tripping or slipping, provoked by sudden belt stops or accelerations.


The M-Gait is controlled by the D-Flow software which provides real-time system control and a application development environment using visual
programming. Different modules can be added to the D-Flow software to extend the functionality.

System Enhancements Improve Functionality 

Various system enhancements are possible, which increase both the clinical and the research possibilities of your M-Gait. See below for the available addons, please contact us for more detailed specifications.

Pitch and Sway 

Add dynamic pitch and sway to enhance your M-Gait. The flexible D-Flow software platform can be configured to control fast pitch and sway of the
walking surface. Treadmill perturbations can be used to study pathology specific responses, allowing for a more functional gait analysis.

Virtual Reality Environment 

Create a high-end Virtual Reality Environment with a large flat screen projection or a truly immersive experience with the 180 degree projection screen and the surround sound audio system. Enhance even further with a 3D stereoscopic projection.

Motion Capture 

Enhance your clinical gait analysis and research options by adding a 3D

motion capture system to your M-Gait system. The flexible D-Flow software platform can be configured to work with motion capture data acquisition and synchronize real-time processing, in combination with any parameter in your set-up.

Body Weight Support 

Add a Body Weight Support (BWS) to your system in order to enhance your M-Gait’s functionality. The BWS is designed to facilitate functional gait
training of patients with gait impairments by enabling vertical unloading during walking on a treadmill.

Device Integration 

Various other sensors and systems can be integrated, for example the
Human Body Model, Electromyography, Video cameras, Accelerometers and many others. Contact us for more details.

Your Customized Solution? 

Feel free to contact us for a customized solution. We are experienced both in integrating hardware components as well as in the clinical and research application of the technology.

D-Flow Software

Visual Programming 

The D-Flow software is a visual programming tool designed for the development of interactive and immersive virtual reality applications, for the purpose of clinical research and rehabilitation. The D-Flow software system allows an operator to define feedback strategies through a flexible and extensible application development framework, based on visual programming.


D-Flow is based on the concept of modules: manageable components with a specific functionality, which can be combined to create complex,
interactive virtual reality applications. There are various types of modules present in the D-Flow software system. Some modules directly control specific hardware devices, such as a treadmill or a motion base. Other hardware modules provide access to real-time data streams from live input devices or control the virtual environment.

Application Development 

The D-Flow software system allows an operator to define feedback
strategies through a flexible and extensible application development framework, based on visual programming.

Real-Time Feedback 

Key to the D-Flow software is that the subject is regarded as an integral part of a real-time feedback loop, in which multi-sensory input devices measure the behavior of the subject, while output devices return motorsensory, visual and auditory feedback to the subject.

Device Integration 

The D-Flow software platform has integrated many different hardware
devices, ranging from infra-red motion capture cameras, 6-degree of freedom platforms and dual belt treadmills to inertia sensors and haptic devices. Many of the Motekforce Link products are powered by the D-Flow software, like CAREN, GRAIL, DynSTABLE, Regait and M-Gait.

Fast Feedback Loop 

Balancing a small stick in the palm of your hand requires the brain to interpret the movement of the stick, choose a counter movement and execute this movement before the stick reaches a critical point. The video on the right shows just how we are able to perform this task using the D-Flow software, motion capture and a motion base. For more information on D-flow please contact us.

The research activities of the Department of Cognitive Science at MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston have shown that, through rehabilitation in a virtual environment, the central nervous system receives feedback signals increased (augmented feedback) which, during the execution of voluntary movements even if altered by the disease, induces profound changes in cortical and subcortical synaptic and cellular level that are responsible for the restoration of motor activity even in patients who, for example, have had extensive head injuries and strokes.

The virtual environment is developed from the operational protocol resulting from a treatment method in neuromotor virtual environment, developed at the Department of Cognitive Sciences at MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, using the most advanced knowledge of neurophysiological processes of motion learning and memorization processes.


What is VRRS? 

VRRS is conceived to put the patient in a situation to generate the augmented feedback towards his central nervous system (augmented
feedback) through exercises performed in a virtual environment which help to develop knowledge of results of the movements (knowledge of results) and knowledge of the quality of the movements (knowledge of performance). The VRRS method is based on information for the central nervous system such as the evidence of results "knowledge of results" and "knowledge of performance." This way the central nervous system can activate a physiological key learning mechanism called "reinforcement learning" which implies an increase of the specific information of a movement to produce an effective improvement of performance quality. The patient treated with the VRRS method does not split his attention between his gesture and the one performed by the therapist in different times and places of work, thus avoiding to make translations or rotations in the central nervous system to take the same point of view of the movement execution.



The scientific paradigms underlying the system are in particular those of the augmented feedback and the motor imagination, principles upon which it is based the established experience of motor learning promotion by the central nervous system. TECHNOLOGY PRINCIPLES VERSATILITY VRRS is a central hub for connecting multiple devices such as treadmill, augmented reality devices technologies, balance stabilometric and proprioceptive platforms, devices for fine hand rehabilitation and others, representing the output in virtual reality mode with the appropriate work settings combined with specific sets of report. EASINESS VRRS is exceptionally easy to use; endowed with a touch screen monitor and the smart “Interactive Touch Explorer System”, it allows the therapist to an immediate and intuitive management of all its functionalities. INNOVATION VRRS represents the world’s most advanced rehabilitation technology in the virtual reality environment; VRRS is clinically adopted on daily bases also in the most advanced Rehabilitation Centers even for remote and home telerehabilitation mode.

VRRS is a central hub for connecting multiple devices such as treadmill, augmented reality devices technologies, balance stabilometric and proprioceptive platforms, devices for fine hand rehabilitation and others, representing the output in virtual reality mode with the appropriate work settings combined with specific sets of report. 
VRRS is exceptionally easy to use; endowed with a touch screen monitor and the smart “Interactive Touch Explorer System”, it allows the therapist to an immediate and intuitive management of all its functionalities. INNOVATION 
VRRS represents the world’s most advanced rehabilitation technology in the virtual reality environment; VRRS is clinically adopted on daily bases also in the most advanced Rehabilitation Centers even for remote and home telerehabilitation mode.

The rehabilitation effectiveness of the VRRS system, verified by numerous
international scientific publications (including the COCHRANE REVIEW), is the result of many years of development and clinical testing by international prestigious centers of excellence. Technically, VRRS generates a feeble magnetic field area wherein are recognized in real time the position as well as the inclination of small 3D wireless sensors with 6 degrees of freedom, completely harmless. The sensors are applied to the affected part of the patient or to daily living items, reproducing with extreme precision the patient’s movements into virtual reality scenarios. The patient is asked to emulate in real time the “ideal” movement previously recorded. Sensors can play individual segments as well as the whole body of the patient, allowing to face the most complex rehabilitation fields such as step, walking, balance and
compensation. Each operation is carried out with extraordinary ease thanks to the "Smart Touch Explorer System” that allows to manage tasks with immediacy and intuitiveness.

VRRS platform integrates an exclusive large library of clinically validated exercises divided into specific modules, including "Neuromotor"; "Cognitive"; "Speech Therapy"; "Postural and Balance"; "Head and Cervical";
"Orthopedic"; "Cardiorespiratory". Each module includes specific additional hardware, such as Posturographic and Proprioceptive platforms, Handbox, Grasp Sensor.


All activities are automatically recorded by the system, thus generating a complete and objective reporting system that, very easily, can be consulted by the therapist at any time, with the opportunity to view a real
"replay" of the exercises up to more sophisticated analysis in graphical and numerical modes. This is both, a powerful tool of analysis and evaluation, and an exceptional system of objective monitoring of the patient's progress.

The VRRS has a large number of clinically validated exercises, set up for the different diseases, from basic scenarios to those more "environmentally" and complex. However, VRRS allows therapists to create with extraordinary
simplicity from scratch brand new exercises, fitting to the specific needs of each patient.


The VRRS Tele Rehabilitation integrates all the modules, and allows to implement the remote rehabilitation and medicine, representing a genuine clinical and technological innovation. The therapist is able to take full control of the system remotely and to interact in real time with the patient via the
integrated two-way video conference. The patient can also work offline, performing activities prescribed by the therapist remotely via a dedicated web interface. Specific scientific studies have shown equal rehabilitation effectiveness of the VRRS TR compared to same treatment in hospital. 

The platform VRRS-TR allows to implement even remote telemedicine and
teleconsultation. The physician interacts in real time with the patient and in real time can upload data even of the cardiorespiratory matter.

Neurological Rehabilitation 

The exercises for Neurological rehabilitation include available scenarios
ranging from the most simple “reaching” activities to those complex and ecological ones, fitting many diseases. The exercises are organized by segment and by body area: 
--Upper limb, left and right; 
--Leg, left and right; 

This module requires the magnetic kinematic tracking system. The specific activity for fine hand rehabilitation requires the VRRS HANDBOX System.

Cognitive Rehabilitation

The exercises for Cognitive rehabilitation are organized by cognitive
-- Memory;
-- Caution;
-- Apraxia;
-- Spatial orientation;
-- Time orientation;
-- Math;
-- Logic.
The module provides interaction through touchscreen or via the special sensor VRRS GRASP.

Speech Therapy Rehabilitation

The exercises for Speech Therapy rehabilitation are organized by domain of
-- Written denomination;
-- Exercises of respiratory education.

The module provides a wide activity based on videoconference with the
The module provides interaction through touchscreen or via the special sensor VRRS GRASP.

Orthopedic Rehabilitation

The exercises for the Orthopedic rehabilitation are organized by
-- Elbow;
-- Shoulder;
-- Basin;
-- Knee;
-- Hip.

This module requires the magnetic kinematic tracking system.
For some activities, it is required the VRRS Stabilometric Balance.

Postural Rehabilitation

The Stabilometric and Proprioceptive exercises are organized by
-- Posturographic assesment;
-- Exercises of reaching;
-- Exercises of tracking;
-- Exercises of weight shift;
-- Exercises of weight balance.

The module requires the Stabilometric Balance and the Proprioceptive Balance.

Cervical Mobility

The activities for the Cervical Rachis rehabilitation include:
-- Exercises of tracking;
-- Exercises of reaching;
-- Exercises of trajectory tracking.

This module requires the magnetic kinematic tracking system;

Cardiorespiratory Rehabilitation and Monitoring

The activities for Cardiorespiratory rehabilitation include:
-- Remote monitoring about pressure, respiratory rate, heart-rate,
pulse-oximetry, ECG;
-- Spirometry evaluation;
-- Biofeedback exercises for monitoring the respiratory rate and
inhalation and exhalation phases.

This module requires the spirometer and the Khymeia dedicated
monitor cardiorespiratory monitor.

VRRS System